2000 years Before Christ, in India and Mesopotamia
Travel for trade was an important characterize since the beginning of civilisation. The port at Lothal was an important centre of trade between the Indus valley civilisation and the Sumerian civilisation.
600 BC and thereafter
The earliest form of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of historic antiquities was open to the public in Babylon. The Egyptians held many religious festivals that attracted the devout and many people who thronged to cities to see famous works of arts and buildings.
In India, as in other places, kings travelled for empire building. The Brahmins and the shared people travelled for religious purposes. Thousands of Brahmins and the shared folk thronged Sarnath and Sravasti to be greeted by the inscrutable smile of the Enlightened One- the Buddha.
500 BC, the Greek civilisation
The Greek tourists travelled to sites of healing gods. The Greeks also enjoyed their religious festivals that increasingly became a pursuit of pleasure, and in particular, sport. Athens had become an important site for travellers visiting the major sights such as the Parthenon. Inns were established in large towns and seaports to provide for travellers’ needs. Courtesans were the principal entertainment offered.
This era also saw the birth of travel writing. Herodotus was the worlds’ first travel writer. Guidebooks also made their turn up in the fourth century covering destinations such as Athens, Sparta and Troy. Advertisements in the way of signs directing people to inns are also known in this period.
The Roman Empire
With no foreign borders between England and Syria, and with safe seas from piracy due to Roman patrols, the conditions favouring travel had arrived. First class roads coupled with staging inns (precursors of modern motels) promoted the growth of travel. Romans travelled to Sicily, Greece, Rhodes, Troy and Egypt. From 300 AD travel to the Holy Land also became very popular. The Romans introduced their guidebooks (itineraria), listing hotels with signs to clarify quality.
Second homes were built by the high near Rome, occupied chiefly during springtime social season. The most fashionable resorts were found around Bay of Naples. Naples attracted the retired and the intellectuals, Cumae attracted the fashionable while Baiae attracted the down market tourist, becoming noted for its rowdiness, drunkenness and all- night singing.
Travel and Tourism were to never reach a similar position until the modern times.
In the Middle Ages
Travel became difficult and dangerous as people travelled for business or for a sense of obligation and duty.
Adventurers sought fame and fortune by travel. The Europeans tried to discover a sea route to India for trade purposes and in this fact discovered America and explored parts of Africa. Strolling players and minstrels made their living by performing as they travelled. Missionaries, saints, etc. travelled to spread the holy information.
Leisure travel in India was introduced by the Mughals. The Mughal kings built luxurious palaces and enchanting gardens at places of natural and pictureque beauty (for example Jehangir travelled to Kashmir drawn by its beauty.
Travel for empire building and pilgrimage was a regular characterize.
The Grand Tour
From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism was developed as a direct outcome of the Renaissance. Under the reign of Elizabeth 1, young men seeking locaiongs at court were promoted to travel to continent to finish their education. Later, it became customary for education of gentleman to be completed by a ‘Grand Tour’ accompanied by a tutor and lasting for three or more years. While ostensibly educational, the pleasure seeking men travelled to enjoy life and culture of Paris, Venice or Florence. By the end of eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalised in the gentry. little by little pleasure travel displaced educational travel. The arrival of Napoleonic wars inhibited travel for around 30 years and led to the decline of the custom of the Grand Tour.
The development of the spas
The spas grew in popularity in the seventeenth century in Britain and a little later in the European Continent as awareness about the therapeutic qualities of mineral water increased. Taking the cure in the spa rapidly acquired the character of a position symbol. The resorts changed in character as pleasure became the motivation of visits. They became an important centre of social life for the high society.
In the nineteenth century they were little by little replaced by the seaside resort.
The sun, sand and sea resorts
The sea water became associated with health benefits. The earliest visitors consequently drank it and did not bathe in it. By the early eighteenth century, small fishing resorts sprung up in England for visitors who drank and immersed themselves in sea water. With the overcrowding of inland spas, the new sea side resorts grew in popularity. The introduction of steamboat sets in 19th century introduced more resorts in the circuit. The seaside resort little by little became a social meeting point
Role of the industrial dramatical change in promoting travel in the west
The rapid urbanisation due to industrialisation led to mass immigration in cities. These people were lured into travel to escape their ecosystem to places of natural beauty, often to the countryside they had come from change of routine from a physically and psychologically stressful jobs to a leisurely speed in countryside.
Highlights of travel in the nineteenth century
· arrival of railway initially catalysed business travel and later leisure travel. little by little special trains were chartered to only take leisure travel to their destinations.
· Package tours organised by entrepreneurs such as Thomas Cook.
· The European countries indulged in a lot of business travel often to their colonies to buy raw material and sell finished goods.
· The invention of photography acted as a position-enhancing tool and promoted overseas travel.
· The formation of first hotel chains; pioneered by the railway companies who established great railway terminus hotels.
· Seaside resorts began to develop different images as for day-trippers, elite, for gambling.
· Other types of destinations-ski resorts, hill stations, mountaineering spots etc.
· The technological development in steamships promoted travel between North America and Europe.
· The Suez Canal opened direct sea routes to India and the Far East.
· The cult of the guidebook followed the development of photography.
Tourism in the Twentieth Century
The First World War gave first hand experience of countries and aroused a sense of curiosity about international travel among less well off sector for the first time. The large extent of migration to the US meant a lot of travel across the Atlantic. Private motoring began to encourage domestic travel in Europe and the west. The sea side resort became annual family holiday destination in Britain and increased in popularity in other countries of the west. Hotels expanded in these destinations.
The birth of air travel and after
The wars increased interest in international travel. This interest was given the shape of mass tourism by the aviation industry. The surplus of aircraft and growth of private airlines aided the expansion of air travel. The aircraft had become comfortable, faster and steadily cheaper for overseas travel. With the introduction of Boeing 707 jet in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses had arrived. The beginning of chartered flights boosted the package tour market and led to the formation of organised mass tourism. The Boeing 747, a 400 seat craft, brought the cost of travel down severely. The seaside resorts in the Mediterranean, North Africa and the Caribbean were the initial hot spots of mass tourism.
A corresponding growth in hotel industry led to the formation of world-wide chains. Tourism also began to diversify as people began to flock different destinations in the 70s. Nepal and India received a throng of tourists lured by Hare Krishna movement and transcendental meditation. The beginning of individual travel in a meaningful quantity only occurred in the 80s. Air travel also led to a continuous growth in business travel especially with the emergence of the MNCs.