Crossfire Fusor – Aneutronic Nuclear Fusion Reactor
The CrossFire Fusor is a nuclear fusion reactor that is a combination of electrostatic confinement and magnetic confinement forming penning traps; electrostatic speeding up, injection of charged particles by magnetic cusps, magnetic reconnection, electrostatic and magnetic lenses, intended mainly to produce fusion strength for thrusting spacecrafts. The name Fusor is short for fusion reactor, and the name CrossFire is due to both confinement and injection is done three-dimensionally.
The CrossFire Fusor consists of superconducting magnets for confining radially charged particles. The magnets are disposed to form a magnetic cusp vicinity where the charged particles are injected in an electrostatic way, for that is applied an electric voltage at this vicinity. At distal ends of the magnets are applied electric fields for trapping longitudinally the reactants allowing products to escape. It was designed by Moacir L. Ferreira, Jr. initially for propulsion purposes; however, it can be used as a strength plant using a method called electricity conversion by neutralization course of action.
Problem with Current Fusion Approaches
The Tokamak requires a lot of energy, confines only in two dimensions implying low probability of fusions, and was exhaustively tried in more than 30 experiments worldwide.
The Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor takes advantage of electrostatic speeding up consuming low energy to reach great kinetic energy, but has the unsolvable grid-loss problem and a cloud of ion at the centre vicinity limits its energy production.
The Bussard Polywell, its present magnetic compression has low probability of fusing aneutronic fuels, and the excess of electrons limits kinetic energy of the plasma and causes bremsstrahlung radiation.
The Crossfire Fusor Approach
A group of superconducting magnets are disposed to form a magnetic cusp vicinity in where is applied an electric voltage, and at distal ends of the magnets is applied an opposite electric voltage. A fuel is ionized by exchanging electrons with a ground electric possible becoming charged particles which fall down to the magnetic cusp vicinity reaching great kinetic energy of about 600KeV (7 billion °C) at low energy consumption. The injection of charged particles is done surrounding the vicinity of the magnetic cusps to perform a three-dimensional injection. In the interior of the magnets, the charged particles move longitudinally describing a circular and helical orbit around the magnetic field lines keeping away from the magnet walls. The magnet walls are coated with a metal alloy like tungsten or depleted uranium for reflecting bremsstrahlung radiation back to plasma. At the vicinity of the magnetic cusps, the magnetic field lines are curved forcing the charged particles to describe a more elliptical and eccentric orbit increasing electrostatic pressure at the vicinity of the magnetic cusps creating a great difficulty for the charged particles to escape overcoming this vicinity (magnetic reconnection occurrence), and a continuous injection of the charged particles by an ion injection belt making it more difficult however. The magnetic fields act as a magnetic lens focusing (converging) the charged particles, and the electric fields, at distal ends of the magnets, act as an electrostatic lens focusing (converging) the particles as they approach and defocusing (diverging) them as they move back. Pulses on electrical current of the magnets consequence in oscillations on magnetic flux transferring radially energy to plasma (pinch effect), which increases the fusion rate. When a nuclear fusion reaction occurs, the charged products of the reaction escape longitudinally overcoming the electric field and then can be deflected by magnetic and electric fields. For the nuclear fusion responses to produce only charged products, no neutrons, the fusion fuel must be aneutronic like Boron Hydrides, Helium-3 or Lithium Hydride. Aneutronic fuels release millions of times more energy than the fossil fuels and the product of fusion reaction generally is a non-radioactive waste Helium-4.
Using exclusively aneutronic fuels, calculations can be more possible due to use of well known formulas of physics and electricity, which can give a reasonable degree of predictability. Specific energy and specific ionization are input parameters for calculations of magnetic flux and electric voltages. The specific ionization can be either positive or negative; however, specific ionization as low as possible, keeping the plasma in a quasi-neutral state, results in more energy production and less instabilities.
Comparison to Current Approaches
The CrossFire Fusor is similar to Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor in using electrostatic speeding up to reach great kinetic energy, but differs on confinement. It is similar to Bussard Polywell, also to Limpaecher plasma containment, in injecting charged particles by a magnetic cusp vicinity, however, differs on the creation of electric potentials, trapping, magnetic focalization and electricity conversion. The CrossFire Fusor differs from Tokamaks, Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor and Bussard Polywell in having an escape mechanism that can solve problems like ionic saturation and vigorous instability of the plasma. Also, achieves both three-dimensional injection and three-dimensional confinement, associated with magnetic lenses and bore coating, can increase the probability of fusion responses. The CrossFire Fusor has a well-defined cycle of energy and presents a set of simple and consistent calculations to sustain its technical feasibility.
The electricity conversion by neutralization course of action is comparatively simple. A positive electric field forces the positively charged products to exchange its kinetic energy to possible energy. The positively charged products easily attract electrons from an electron gun, and the electron gun extracts electrons from a positive terminal of a capacitor increasing its positive voltage, which increase its stored energy (E=½CV²), then a switching-mode strength supply sends this energy to a battery bank. This method of electricity conversion can go beyond 95% of efficiency.